Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Wood purchased by fish smokers usually came from mangrove forests, continental forests (Bomanas forest), agricultural fields, and home gardens (see Figure 8). H��Wَ��}�W�CH��fI�� �##�$h%~��YZ. By continuing to browse In fact, many local ordinances forbid harvesting it. Some only purchased it, and others, in addition to purchasing it, also collected their own wood. Sustainable management of mangrove forests in West Africa: A new policy perspective? Creation of a high spatio‐temporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century (CGMFC‐21), Biology and distribution of mangrove crabs in the Wouri River Estuary, Douala, Cameroon, Evaluation de la qualité microbiologique des poissons Etmalosz fimbriata et Sardinella aurita fumés traditionnellement [Assessment of the microbiological quality of Etmalosz fimbriata and Sardinella aurita fish traditionally smoked], The loss of species: Mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. Most women surveyed were married (88%) and many (especially foreigners) had a husband who was a fisherman and who supplied them with fish. In our sample, all the fish smokers were women. Thus, some fish smokers used alternative energy sources (Figure 5), as well as firewood, in order to improve physical aspects of the fish, most usually the color. In Cameroon, mangrove forests cover approximately 250,000 hectares and are among the most extensive stands in Africa (Angoni et al., 2015). Acrobat Distiller 8.1.0 (Windows); modified using iText 4.2.0 by 1T3XT Most respondents said they had been smoking fish since they were young and that they had inherited work spaces, equipment, and necessary skills from their mothers. application/pdf Promotional Price Vietnam 100% Wood Charcoal from Mangrove for Somalia Smoking Hookah Bars . The geographical coordinates of the locality are 4° 20′ to 4° 50′ N latitude and 8° 30′ to 9° 00′ E longitude (Din, 2001). However, once you learn about the different types of wood for smoking meat, you will find those great few choices that will suit your personal tastes in no time. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. These fish smokers were mainly located in Down Beach, Idenau, Njonji, and Batoke. Pouokam (2011) found that 55% of wood came from continental forests, 23% from home gardens, and 5% from mangrove forests. Wood from mangrove forests is also used for housing material, scaffolding, fishing stakes and more. Mangrove branches wood charcoal is called as Kachi charcoal. There is still virtually no infrastructure and access is by canoe. All products such as Mangrove charcoal, Coconut shell charcoal or Sawdust briquette can be used for Barbeque, heating and stove fuel, incense and guacharo wood burning, hookah smoking … A few (17%) are Cameroonian. The hydrography is characterized by the Andokat and Rio Del Rey rivers, which converge in an estuary (Olivry, cited in Tadjoung & Effala, 2008). For long cooks, chunks of wood from golf ball to baseball size work best. In Eyengue, it was sold in lots (see Figure 7), which comprise 120 pieces (see Figure 7) and cost 46€. Wood from a mangrove tree. Thus, smoking is highly dependent on mangrove forests (Ajonina, 2008; Ajonina, 2001). Table 2. Wood quality is important in fish smoking. Post Reply. As most rural areas do not have electricity, local people use smoking as a way to preserve fish. More wood is used in Down Beach, and Eyengue, and particularly in Idenau, than in other communities. Potential Impact of Fish Smoking on Mangrove Resources in Southwest Cameroon, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage, Ngo-Massou, Essomè-Koum, Kottè-Mapoko, & Din, 2014, http://www.journalducameroun.com/article.php?aid=12990, https://infodoc.agroparistech.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=102671, https://www.pourlascience.fr/sd/environnement/du-carbone-sous-les-mangroves-10929.php. Wood is generally the preferred fuel for rural people because it is easily available, dispersed throughout the rural habitat, and can usually be obtained without major costs. Thus, although the traditional ovens have a larger capacity per smoking session, the amount smoked per kg of wood is far less compared to the cinderblock oven, the smoking time is longer and the cost of wood is far higher. On average, each supports a family of 3 to 6 people. These differences are due to the fact that in Pouokam’s (2011) study site, the mangrove forest stocks are almost exhausted, and this is putting pressure on other species such as forest trees and fruit trees. Population pressure also causes mangrove destruction in unprotected areas, especially around settlements, villages, and towns where poverty and land issues force people to move onto any open land they can (ENVI-REP Cameroun, 2010). Many fish smokers in Cameroon, particularly those in the south west region, have at least primary school education. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (. Can't comment on the bottlebrush but I've got a US book here that says the best 2 woods to use when smoking are hickory and mangrove (!) Quote Wanda_Ra. Our overarching aim is to contribute to the sustainable management of mangroves through an assessment of the impact of fish smoking activities on them. We found that 98% of respondents have a preference for wood for smoking because it allow them not only to quickly reach and maintain the required temperature for fish smoking, but also to solve issues linked to physicochemical properties such as color because as Knockaert (1999) explains, fish color depends on the type of wood used during smoking. Figure 2 shows that the illiteracy rate is very low in all communities except Debundscha. In just 10 years, national territory mangrove forests in Cameroon have decreased from 250,000 hectares to 134,400 hectares (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2007; Hamilton & Casey, 2016). Fish smoking is a very important activity in the south west region of Cameroon and the demand for smoked fish continues to grow. Choosing the best wood for smoking meat can be a challenge! Oven performance varied significantly within the study area (Table 3). The climate is characterized by a brief dry season and a rainy season that last over nine months. They sometimes spend up to 400€ per month on wood and are mainly Ghanaian (47%) and Nigerian (30%). For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. 1 0 obj I would also like to thank the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Limbe-batoke station, for enabling access to the research area, and for providing personnel, equipment, much good work, and knowledge. Wood was sold in variety of ways. The amount of wood and fish that can be used at any one time depends on oven size. The Implications of Wood Exploitation for Fish Smoking on Mangrove Ecosystem Conservation in th... Mongabay.com Scientific Journal, Tropical Conservation Science, Reaches its Second Year of Existence, Angoni, H., Tatchim, A. P., Nkonmeneck, B. How to reduce wood consumption is now a central challenge for many governments, and one solution could be the use of more economical ovens.
Trout Fish Vs Salmon, Belmont University Undergraduate Tuition And Fees, Bdo Trade Mastery, Drawing Projects For High School Art Students, How To Improve Health And Safety In The Workplace, Buffalo's Menu Griffin, Ga,