christchurch earthquake sequence

For Kate, there's one clear, key lesson to learn from the Christchurch earthquakes. At 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday 22 February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake caused severe damage in Christchurch and Lyttelton, killing 185 people and injuring several thousand. Google Scholar | Crossref Hossain, L., and Kit, D. C., 2012. Transient Elevated Localized Seismicity after the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Half of Christchurch's urban roads had to be rebuilt, 30% of the sewerage system was damaged and 32 million litres of water were lost when a major crack opened up in the floor of the city's largest reservoir. The earthquake Abstract Objective: To track population mental wellbeing following the 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes and after‐shocks. Map showing recent earthquake activity in and around Christchurch, New Zealand. Because this aftershock was centred very close to Christchurch, it was much more destructive and resulted in the deaths of 185 people. Continuing aftershocks in the days after February 22 further weakened structures throughout the area, and portions of several suburbs had to be evacuated. The repair and rebuilding of Canterbury continues and is expected to top $40 billion. Although one of these events were large earthquakes (the largest is M=6.0), the shallow depth (6 km for the largest), proximity to the city and … Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, also called Canterbury earthquakes, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. 2012) that resulted in 185 fatalities. Tonkin + Taylor's Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Programme Leader, John Leeves and liquefaction expert, Dr Sjoerd van Ballegooy reflect on the unprecedented liquefaction damage that devastated Greater Christchurch. The February 22nd 2011 aftershock affected Christchurch more than the original quake, because this aftershock was directly underneath Christchurch whereas the original was about 40km away. Before Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2010) Christchurch, New Zealand Backdrop. On 4 September 2010, a powerful earthquake struck near Darfield in Canterbury. This disaster has proven that in the worst of times, we see the best of New Zealand.”. 2011) and three subsequent earthquakes of M w ≥ 5.9, most notably the 22 February 2011 M w 6.2 Christchurch earthquake (e.g., Kaiser Other towns in the area around Christchurch were seriously affected, although fewer lives were lost. published material related to the government’s It encompasses lessonsactions following the earthquakes. This earthquake had a death toll of 184, and it caused more structural damage to Christchurch than the main earthquake. However, in doing so it has still attempted to focus on longer-term adaptation and sustainability in its forward planning. The February 2011 magnitude 6.2 Christchurch earthquake was triggered by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake five months earlier. The earthquake’s epicentre was near Lyttelton, just 10 km south-east of Christchurch’s central business district. TEC chart for Christchurch earthquake February 18th, 2011. METHODS: The Canterbury Wellbeing Survey, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected adults aged ≥18 years resident in Christchurch, was repeated biannually from April 2013 until June 2017 and annually thereafter. Data from GNS Science, New Zealand. Although one of these events were large earthquakes (the largest is M=6.0), the shallow depth (6 km for the largest), proximity to the city and … Christchurch earthquake. Canterbury Earthquake Sequence ~15000 Case Histories 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 (AUC) Year Model Published LPI Random Guess RW98 IB08 BI14 Mea06 Perfect Model AIJ01 Gea18 Finite-sample uncertainty shown via bootstrap simulations Given large data, small differences tend to be statistically significant 2.5 thand 97.5 Percentiles It was a … However, Christchurch is subject to issues on a different level to Haiti which affect its potential to bounce back. The Earthquake Commission received over 470,000 insurance claims. Methods: The Canterbury Wellbeing Survey, a … Due to on-going aftershock activity and About six faults in total moved during the Darfield earthquake, which triggered a long sequence of aftershocks. The epicentres of each of these events, which possessed moment magnitudes of 5.6 and 6.3, were located some 10 km (6 miles) east of Christchurch at depths of 9 km (5.6 miles) and 7 km (4.4 miles), respectively. Damaged as a result of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence. The plaintiffs lodged two claims with Vero. Swarms. The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011. Prior evidence suggests that typically there is a greater presence of distress in people who had greater exposure to such events. Updates? https://www.britannica.com/event/Christchurch-earthquakes-of-2010-2011, New Zealand History - Christchurch earthquake kills 185. Modelling coordination in hospital emergency departments through … The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to 7.1) that struck on September 4, 2010, and the large, destructive aftershock (magnitude 6.3) that occurred on February 22, 2011. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. earthquake sequence that began on 4 September 2010 This report synthesises the lessons captured from the . Map of the central part of New Zealand's South Island depicting the intensity of shaking caused by the earthquake of Sept. 4, 2010, and the strong aftershock of Feb. 22, 2011. The role of insurance in promoting resilience and sustainable development in post-earthquake Christchurch Click on image for larger PDF version. A clustered sequence of earthquakes beginning with the 1994 M w 6.7 Arthurs Pass earthquake and including the 1994 M w 6.0, 1995 M w 6.0, and 1995 M w 6.2 Cass earthquakes occurred with epicentres < 40 km apart in the eastern Southern Alps (Fig. Tonkin + Taylor's Operations Manager for the Christchurch Earthquake Recovery Project, Shamus Wallace and his wife Lisa had two children after the earthquake sequence began. The 2010–2011 New Zealand earthquake sequence New Zealanders showed resilience in the aftermath of the quake that rocked Christchurch in autumn of 2010. GNS Science says the Canterbury aftershock sequence is expected to last for some years until Christchurch returns to pre-2010 levels of earthquake activity. Christchurch earthquake. ABSTRACT. The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence underscores the importance of capturing the impact of change in the short-term and medium-term seismicity rate in areas that have been recently impacted by an earthquake when performing seismic risk analysis. This earthquake had a death toll of 184, and it caused more structural damage to Christchurch than the main earthquake. John P. Rafferty writes about Earth processes and the environment. It was established that there was an increase in psychological distress in people who had been exposed to the Canterbury earthquakes. Canterbury’s most severe earthquake prior to these occurred on 1 September 1888 about 100km north of Christchurch in the Amuri district. Eddy Snook took a deep interest in quakes when the Christchurch earthquake sequence began in the months before the deadliest tremor occurred. Property at Worsleys Road, Cracroft, Christchurch. focusing on five specific areas: Recovery Governance Arrangements, , Land Decisions, Recovery Legislation While the anomaly peaked on February 18th, it was spread over a number of days prior to the earthquake. The most destructive of these was the 22 February 2011 earthquake, centered close to Christchurch… The 6.3-magnitude earthquake may have been an aftershock of the 7.1-magnitude 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake. * Earthquake rattles Christchurch early on Saturday morning "These sorts of small earthquakes are still higher than they were before the Canterbury earthquakes sequence started in 2010. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. He serves currently as the editor of Earth and life sciences, covering climatology, geology, zoology, and other topics that relate to... Woman surveying the damage to her home near Christchurch, close to the epicentre of the earthquake that struck New Zealand's South Island on Sept. 4, 2010. About six faults in total moved during the Darfield earthquake, which triggered a long sequence of aftershocks. Author information: (1)Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand janet.spittlehouse@otago.ac.nz. It was caused by right-lateral movement along a previously unknown regional strike-slip fault in the western section of the Canterbury Plains. In September 2010 a strong earthquake struck Christchurch and its surrounding region; although there were no fatalities, the city suffered extensive damage to buildings and infrastructure. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! It was the country’s strongest tremor since the Wairarapa earthquake back in 1855 (magnitude 8.2–8.3). Time-lapse visualisations of the February 22 2011 and September 4 2010 earthquakes and … Tonkin + Taylor’s Virginie Lacrosse found people really “got it” when she likened geotechnical engineers to doctors. Time-lapse visualisations of the February 22 2011 and September 4 2010 earthquakes and … (2)Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch… We have already had the Kaikoura earthquake since. The removal of wreckage and official damage assessments were ongoing. 2011) and three subsequent earthquakes of Mw ≥ 5.9, most notably the 22 February 2011 Mw6.2 Christchurch earthquake (e.g., Kaiser et al. The June 13 events were located farther east of the known extent of the Greendale Fault, and they appeared to have been generated by strike-slip faulting rather than by thrust faulting associated with the February 22 event. In February 2011 Christchurch was struck by another, far more-damaging earthquake whose epicentre was located just a few miles from the city’s central business…, …region were struck by a strong earthquake on September 4, 2010—about magnitude 7, centred approximately 20 miles (30 km) west of the city. The aftershocks line up along a 100 kilometre fault zone that runs from west to east and extends into Christchurch itself. NOW 50% OFF! Between September 2010 and the end of 2011, 4 major earthquakes and more than 11,200 aftershocks shook the residents of Christchurch and surrounding towns. Corrections? The Canterbury earthquake sequence has to be examined as an example of New Zealand crisis management in action, he says. The three M≥6.0 aftershocks included the devastating M6.3 Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, which resulted in 185 deaths and extensive damage. The Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) is a longitudinal birth cohort study that has published four papers evaluating the psychological impacts of the earthquake sequence. It is recorded as a magnitude 7.1 earthquake, but reached magnitude 9 at its epicentre. back’. Spittlehouse JK(1), Joyce PR(2), Vierck E(2), Schluter PJ(3), Pearson JF(4). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. I would especially like to recognise the dedication of the team on the ground - they are doing a brilliant job. The three M≥6.0 aftershocks included the devastating M6.3 Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, which resulted in 185 deaths and extensive damage. This morning has seen the next series of events in the now 16-month long Christchurch Earthquake sequence in New Zealand. Hundreds of buildings in the central business district and some 10,000 dwellings were deemed to be unsalvageable, and it was expected that they would have to be demolished. Although there were few serious injuries and no fatalities, the quake and its aftershocks (some of them severe) destroyed hundreds of buildings in the city and damaged…, …the epicentre of a strong earthquake (magnitude 6.3) that struck the Christchurch area on February 22, 2011. Between September 2010 and December 2011, NZ's second largest city (pop. Those shakes, collectively known as the Canterbury earthquake sequence, were the biggest insured event in New Zealand history and at the time the 4 th most expensive insured, global natural … New Zealand's GNS Science has stated that the earthquake was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude-7.1 quake, however a seismologist from Geoscience Australia considers it a separate event given its location on a separate fault system. The map shows the seismicity in the vicinity of Christchurch, New Zealand following the September 3, 2010, M7.0, Darfield earthquake (yellow circles) and the February 21, 2011, M6.3, Christchurch earthquake (orange circles). There was more destruction of buildings as most buildings were already weakened by the original quake, and more liquefaction occurred as the crust was already broken. Saunders, J.S. Description of the Canterbury earthquake sequence and effects The Darfield earthquake of magnitude 7.1 occurred on 4 September 2010 at 4.35 a.m., causing damage to the immediate Darfield area, and as far away as the nearby city of Christchurch and the Kaiapoi township. “On behalf of the Government and all New Zealanders, I would like to thank everyone from Tonkin and Taylor who pitched in and helped in the aftermath of the devastating Canterbury earthquake and continue to assist in the ongoing recovery. 380,000) was hit by four major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks. Rescue efforts were at times hampered, however, by the potential dangers posed by the aftershocks. Objective: In September 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake, followed by a prolonged sequence of significant aftershocks including a fatal aftershock in February 2011. The first earthquake in September 2010 was the moment the ‘rubber hit the road’ for geotechnical engineer, Mike Jacka. According to the NZ Earthquake Commission report, the chart shown here for Christchurch corresponds to the time of greatest anomaly in the ionosphere prior to the Christchurch earthquake. The Christchurch earthquake sequence has been on-going since September 4th 2010. The sequence of many thousands of aftershocks that followed the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake of 3 September 2010. Three nearby accelerometers allow calibration between the geological expressions of liquefaction and the intensity of earthquake-induced surface ground motion at the site. Christchurch has undertaken many of these pre-event planning suggestions after the earthquake sequence. Australia, Japan, Singapore, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other countries also sent hundreds of search-and-rescue workers. It was established that there was an increase in psychological distress in people who had been exposed to the Canterbury earthquakes. 2A) (Gledhill et al., 2000, Robinson and McGinty, 2000) and generated up to MMI ~ 5 in Christchurch (Pettinga et al., 2001). Christchurch City has experienced widespread damage, ongoing disruption and building demolitions resulting in many difficulties for the residents of the Christchurch area. Bexley and other suburbs were flooded after water mains broke; after the waters receded, quake-damaged roads and homes remained covered with silt. Both the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals of Christchurch suffered serious damage. The widespread and complex land damage across Canterbury needed to be explained to and understood by property owners. (2006) 3,075; (2012 est.) In contrast to the main shock, this aftershock was generated by oblique thrust faulting (where one side of the fault is thrust upward over the other) along a different, undiscovered fault. Prior evidence suggests that typically there is a greater presence of distress in people who had greater exposure to such events. Efforts resumed the following day, however, after the building was secured. It began a series of earthquakes and aftershocks lasting till around 2016. The report titled Lessons from the Canterbury earthquake sequence provides a whole-of-government perspective on the lessons from the Government’s recovery efforts from the Canterbury earthquake disaster.DPMC serves the Executive, Governor-General, Prime Minister and Cabinet, through the provision of impartial advice and support. since the beginning of the Canterbury earthquakes sequence. Natural disasters can create significant uncertainty for individuals and entire cities. Some damaging aftershocks followed the main event, the strongest of which was a magnitude 6.3 shock known as the Christchurch earthquake that occurred nearly six months later on 22 February 2011. Many events in the 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence were sufficiently shallow and close to (or under) Christchurch to subject the city to very intense shaking (V: 1.7 g; H: 2.2 g). The focus of this temblor was relatively shallow, however, occurring only 3 miles (5 km) beneath the surface of Heathcote Valley, a suburb of Christchurch located on the Banks Peninsula. One of the world's largest natural disasters. In March 2012 it was announced that because of additional damage it had sustained in the aftershocks, the Anglican cathedral was beyond repair and would be demolished. Policy under Vero. Omissions? Revisiting the Canterbury earthquake sequence after the 14 February 2016 Mw 5.7 event Matthew W. Herman1 and Kevin P. Furlong1 1Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA AbstractOn14February2016,anMw5.7(GNSSciencemomentmagnitude)earthquakerupturedoffshore east of Christchurch, New Zealand. OBJECTIVE: To track population mental wellbeing following the 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes and after-shocks. More than 1,000 New Zealand Defence Force personnel led the response, aided by more than 100 members of the Singaporean armed forces who were in New Zealand for a joint training exercise at the time of the quake. The fault, later named the Greendale Fault, appeared about 50 to 56 miles (80 to 90 km) southeast of the boundary between the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates, and part of the fault became visible at the surface because of the earthquake. EARTHQUAKE SEQUENCE A magnitude7.1 earthquake struck the Canterbury region of New Zealands South Island on September 4, 2010; the epicenter was located near the town of Darfield, approximately 35 kilometers west of Christchurch on the previously unknown Greendale fault. On 14 November 2016, six years after the start of the earthquake sequence that devastated the city of Christchurch, New Zealand was again hit by a severe quake with a moment magnitude of 7.8. GeoNet staff deployed portable earthquake recorders to collect information on the rich aftershock sequence of the earthquake. 6.3 magnitude earthquake part of aftershock sequence - 25/02/2011 24/02/2011 12:32 pm This week’s devastating magnitude 6.3 earthquake centred southeast of Christchurch was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude 7.1 quake near Darfield, 40km west of the city, an earthquake geologist said today. Continuous observational monitoring of a study site in eastern Christchurch, New Zealand, following the 2010 M w 7.1 Darfield earthquake has recorded ten distinct liquefaction episodes in the mainshock–aftershock sequence. Although some were rescued on the day of the quake, the search for others was suspended because it was thought that the remaining victims could not have survived; further, it was feared that the building’s remains were too unstable to be safe for rescue workers. Further, it was predicted that because the quake had rendered the land so unstable in some places, certain areas might have to be abandoned altogether. Jackson & Arizona are part of the generation of Christchurch children now know as 'the earthquake babies'. An estimated 100 or more people had been in the building at the time of the quake. For Christchurch, the positive results of a proactive approach (such as emergency preparedness, stringent building codes, community education) are evidenced in relation to the forces generated by the earthquake. 4.3.4. Often referred to as the Valentine's Day earthquake, it was centred in the sea off New Brighton at a depth of 15 kilometres (9.3 mi). 15,000 families lost their homes and 8,000 families were permanently displaced. Extensive vertical and horizontal ground movement caused considerable damage to buildings and land. Ongoing adverse mental health impact of the earthquake sequence in Christchurch, New Zealand. GeoNet staff deployed portable earthquake recorders to collect information on the rich aftershock sequence of the earthquake. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The severest aftershock occurred at 12:51 pm on February 22, 2011. As a result, some seismologists have downplayed any direct association between the June 13 events and those of the main shock and February 22 aftershock. A number of studies were undertaken post the sequence of earthquakes in Christchurch. Rescue workers blocking access to a collapsed building in central Christchurch, New Zealand, after the earthquake that struck February 22, 2011. Buildings and roads across the Christchurch region, which had been weakened by the September event and its aftershocks, were severely damaged or destroyed in the February event. Clock tower on … Becker Pages 73-81 Despite aftershocks, the prevailing attitude was positive and people were eager to pick up the pieces and get on with their lives. Policy under Southern Response. 3,000.…. The Canterbury earthquake sequence is an on-going earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. In the final analysis, it became clear that the most widespread and severe affects to infrastructure and land had been caused by repeated liquefaction events and the damage each one induced when millions of tonnes of silt and water spewed to the earth's surface. The earthquakes have had a devastating effect on the central city and the people of Christchurch and surrounding areas. Map showing recent earthquake activity in and around Christchurch, New Zealand. The map shows the seismicity in the vicinity of Christchurch, New Zealand following the September 3, 2010, M7.0, Darfield earthquake (yellow circles) and the February 21, 2011, M6.3, Christchurch earthquake (orange circles). On September 4, 2010, an M 7.0 earthquake struck 45 km (28 miles) west of Christchurch; dubbed the Darfield earthquake, it was the first in a more than year-long series of quakes that impacted the Canterbury region. All of the earthquakes occurred on previously Ground water measurements from 1,000+ piezometers Airborne LIDAR and high resolution imagery following multiple The plaintiffs entered into a settlement agreement with the defendant for a fixed sum. Seismic hazard analysis for urban Christchurch accounting for the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence. The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Like the main shock, however, the February 22 aftershock stemmed from the deformation along regional plate boundaries where the Pacific and Indo-Australian tectonic plates push against one another. Christchurch including the depositional history of soils, their composition, age and groundwater regime are first discussed. Two large tremors struck the Christchurch metropolitan area during the early afternoon on June 13, 2011. This morning has seen the next series of events in the now 16-month long Christchurch Earthquake sequence in New Zealand. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep. Christchurch’s city centre was hit particularly hard and was evacuated. Lyttelton sustained widespread damage to buildings, wharves, and other infrastructure. 380,000) was hit by four major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks. The aftershock’s depth and close proximity to Christchurch contributed to substantial shaking, surface cracking, and liquefaction (the conversion of soil into a fluidlike mass) in the city and surrounding area. Sometimes it can take months to identify the sequence, as was the case with the 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence, comprising the September 2010 M 7.0 Darfield earthquake and its major aftershock, the February 2011 M6.2 Christchurch earthquake, and the Landers Sequence. The day after the quake, Prime Minister John Key declared a state of national emergency in the quake area, expanding his government’s powers to coordinate rescue and recovery efforts. Earthquake data from the portable instruments are used in conjunction with data from permanent GeoNet monitoring stations and portable instruments that had remained deployed following the M7.1 Darfield earthquake. This thesis examines the role of government decision-making and uncertainty in disaster recovery, focusing on a case study of post-earthquake Christchurch, New Zealand. After Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2017) ©travelieu.com Christchurch, New Zealand Backdrop. An earthquake occurred in Christchurch on 14 February 2016 at 1:13 p.m. local time (00:13 UTC) and initially recorded as 5.9 on the Richter scale, but subsequently reviewed as 5.7. The demise of the URM building stock in Christchurch during the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence, Earthquake Spectra 30, 253 – 276. Appendix D: Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Christchurch Soil Sites Report prepared by Bradley Seismic Ltd. Bradley, B. JP Morgan, Chase & Co ranked the CES as the third most costly earthquake event in history behind the 2011 Japanese subduction earthquake/tsunami and the 1994 Californian earthquakes. He had done his Master’s degree at Canterbury University in earthquake engineering, specifically, liquefaction potential for Christchurch. Earthquake Services Limited General Proceeding Property at Happy Home Road, Westmorland, Christchurch. 2014. Christchurch was … The principal event, sometimes referred to as the Darfield earthquake, struck at 4:35 am on September 4, 2010. If you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) typically there a! Fault in the deaths of 185 people lost their homes and 8,000 were... Gledhill et al the spire of the earthquake, sustained widespread damage to Christchurch than the earthquake! Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand earthquake sequence homes remained covered silt! 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