Both male and female flowers appear during July to August. Trunk bark is mottled light and dark gray; it has weak furrows and ridges that are irregular and fragmented. An eastern range extends from Mas-sachusetts, west to southern Ontario, southwest to Iowa, south to Texas, and east to northern Florida. It is used for fuelwood and charcoal production in several countries. Famille. The roots can be used to treat epilepsy and asthma. Bozeman, Montana, USA: Montana State University, 169-172. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, USA: Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 128-133. Swingle (Simaroubaceae) in Sicilia e cenni storici sulla sua introduzione in Italia). Autecology of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. Haddad Y, 1999. Ecosistemas, 22(1):83-85. http://www.revistaecosistemas.net/index.php/ecosistemas/article/view/776, Constán-Nava S, Bonet A, Pastor E, Lledó MJ, 2010. > 10°C, Cold average temp. by Valkenburg, J. L. C. H. van \Bunyapraphatsara, N.]. Swingle and native Liriodendron tulipifera (L.). Silviculture of Chinese Trees. EPPO, 2020. USDA Agriculture Handbook, 450. It can even tolerate barren rocky hills, if the rainfall is >750 mm per annum (Zheng, 1978, 1988). Cd-absorption of wood species in Beijing Fangshan District. Liu TangRui, Liao Rijing, 1988. Ailanthus altissima var. Invasive plants and the green industry. Also, the mean percentage egg hatch did not differ between treatments (‘with Ailanthus’: 80.67 ± 2.01% (mean ± SE) (range: 50–100%); ‘without Ailanthus’: 83.01 ± 3.78% (range: 73–90%); U = 71.0, P = 0.636). Atlas de las plantas aloctonas invasoras en Espana. (1999) found that commercial stump treatment based on the fungus Cylindrobasidium laeve (Pers.) Ailanthus grows best in loamy, moist soils but tolerates a wide range of textures, stoniness, and pH. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. It is now found across much of the northern hemisphere in urban, rural, Three varieties, vars. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hawaiian alien plant studies., Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii. ● Ashes X-ray diffraction analysis The XRD analysis of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Ailanthus altissima leaf extract is illustrated in Fig. Gilman, A.V. Wallingford, UK: CABI, DAISIE, 2014. Zelenin AV, 1976. PHM Revue Horticole, 399:38-40. Ziranziyuan, 1:5-12. The roots, leaves and bark are used in traditional Chinese medicine, primarily as an astringent. Tree of Heaven; Large specimen growing in a park in Germany: Scientific classification; Kingdom: Plantae: Clade: This tree has been reported from Canada south to Florida, west to California and north to Washington. This species is able to grow in highly urbanized environments and is a highly invasive species in … It was first introduced to North America in 1784 in Philadelphia, and became a popular ornamental tree commonly found in nurseries by the 1840s. Policies). Mature trees can reach 80 feet in height. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. NATIVE STATUS: Introduced, United States and Canada. GENERAL BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION: Tree-of-heaven is a nonnative, deciduous tree. ]; 25 ref. Allelopathic and herbicidal effects of extracts from tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima). BASIONYM: Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines, var. A. altissima is mainly valued for shade, shelterbelt and erosion control, particularly in cities where soils are poor and the atmosphere is smoky. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Preferred mean annual temperature is 7-18°C, and it can also tolerate heavy frosts, and survive absolute minimum temperatures as low as -35°C. Dong et al. Invasion processes as related to succession and disturbance. Luna RK, 1996. Neimenggu Forestry and Technology, 4:28-31. It is used for afforestation in Jammu and Kashmir and as an avenue tree elsewhere. Harrington RA, Kujawski R, Ryan HDP, 2003. Ailanthus. Parsons WT, Cuthbertson EG, 2001. Gareth A. Walker 1 Streets RJ, 1962. The spectrum showed that the absorbance peak at 396 nm corresponding to the characteristic band of copper oxide nanoparticles. SE-EPPC, 2002. Bases for control and eradication in Protected Natural Areas. Division of Biological Sciences, Missoula, USA: University of Montana. http://www.dcr.state.va.us/dnh/fsaial.pdf. in Western Himalayas. Urban rivers as dispersal corridors for primarily wind-dispersed invasive tree species. Improved in 24 Hours. author/artist/photographer. Also escaped in Europe. Control of weevils damaging Ailanthus trees in Beijing with steinernematid nematodes. Heisey RM, 1997. Trees 386. It has large leaf scars on the twigs. 3. Kowarik I, Lippe Mvon der, 2006. SE-EPPC, 2002. Helping ID the Tree of Heaven video ( Ailanthus altissima ). More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. 11 (12), 361-368. Ses feuilles sont très longues (jusqu'à 60 cm de long) et virent au jaune en été. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Grapow LC, Blasi C, 1998. In Australia, A. altissima is listed as a noxious weed with levels of control varying among states (Anon., 1998). http://rua.ua.es/dspace/handle/10045/24861, Constán-Nava S, 2013. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Washington DC, USA: USDA. Stem-injection of herbicide for control of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Flowering occurs during May to June and seeds ripen in large, crowned clusters in September to October of the same season, and are dispersed from October to the following spring. Also, stem-injection of herbicide kills A. altissima trees (Meloche and Murphy, 2006; Badalamenti et al., 2013). The mean range of adult feeding by E. brandti on all other test species was <7% of feeding on A. altissima (0.0-3.3 ± 5.0 mm(2)/adult/d). ]; 9 ref. Forestry Research Institute Seoul, 1992. Schinz & Thell. Pest insects and diseases of woody trees and shrubs in China. Lesnicky Casopis, 34(5):399-412; With English captions; 4 ref. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. Date of U.S. Introduction: Late 1700s . Kowarik I, 1995. The checkered career of Ailanthus altissima. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. The appropriate mounding height and selection of ornamental trees on consideration of the environmental characteristics in an apartment complex. Date of U.S. Introduction: Late 1700s . Ailanthus altissima. Swingle: a practical source of power for drilling holes in stems. Research into the exploitation of land resources in the Huanghe River delta. Introduction: The Tree of Heaven was first brought to the United States by a Philadelphia gardener in 1784. ailanthus wood are acceptable, and in some regards superior to aspen (2,21, 27). for any purpose.THANK YOU Ailanthus altissima, commonly called tree of heaven, is native to China and was introduced into New York City in 1820 as a street tree and food source for silkworm caterpillars. In: The Prevention and Management of Invasive Alien Species: Forging Cooperation throughout South and Southeast Asia. 39 (2), 29-50. In Victoria, it is designated a regionally controlled weed under the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994 (CaLP Act), a category W2/W3 weed under the Noxious Weeds Act 1993 (NWA) in New South Wales, in Western Australia it is prohibited until assessed, and it is a declared weed in other states and territories (Anon., 1998). If you break the branches of the tree it stinks really bad. Tolerant of pollution, it became a popular street tree in the 19th century. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council., Nashville, USA: http://www.se-eppc.org/. In Europe, A. altissima has colonized disturbed sites along roads and ditches, particularly in the Mediterranean region, where has successfully invaded several habitats including old fields, scrubland and pine, oak and riparian forests (Kowarik, 1983; Lepart et al., 1991; Kowarik and Säumel, 2007; Constán-Nava, 2012). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. iForest. Beijing, China: Chinese Forestry Publishing House, 139-146. (2015). by Landolt, E.]. Ailanthus altissima Quassia family (Simaroubaceae) Description: This tree is 40-80' at maturity, forming either single or multiple trunks and a relatively open ovoid crown on each trunk. Ailanthus with bright red samaras . NeoBiota, No.9:49-70. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/neobiota/article/1469/secondary-wind-dispersal-enhances-long-distance-dispersal-of-an-invasive-species-in-urban-road-corridors, Kowarik I, Säumel I, 2007. Ailanthus with bright red samaras . Jambor Benczur E, Nemenyi A, Szendrak E, Szafian Z, 1997. Evaluate the host range of the pest.-Low (1) has a very limited host range.-Medium (2) has a moderate host range.-High (3) has a wide host range. Naturalista Siciliano, S. IV, XXXVI (1) 117-164. Native Range Ailanthus, a native of China, was first introduced into the United States from England to Philadelphia, PA, in 1784. Range. From these areas, tree-of-heaven has spread and become a common invasive plant in urban, agricultural, and forested areas. In the case of Sanggyoi-Dong sanitary landfill. Comparative seed dispersal, seedling establishment and growth of exotic, invasive Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Forest Science, 54(5):490-496. http://www.safnet.org. Managing tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) in parks and protected areas: a case study of Rondeau Provincial Park (Ontario, Canada). 324 pp. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 698 pp. La face supérieure est vert foncé, la face inférieure plus claire. Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii. Habitat. The Hillier Manual of Trees & Shrubs. A. altissima was named in 1916 by Swingle. Invasive Alien Plant Species of Virginia - Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle). Schopmeyer CS, 1974. Impact: Crowds out native species; damages pavement and building foundations in urban areas . Identification of plant growth inhibitory principles in Ailanthus altissma and Castela tortuosa. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm. http://www.dcr.state.va.us/dnh/fsaial.pdf. Ding JianQing, Wu Y, Zheng Hao, Fu WeiDong, Reardon R, Liu Min, 2006. In China, the tree of heaven has a long and rich history. Journal of Arboriculture. A. altissima has gracefully curving branches, usually only 6-10 m tall, but sometimes growing up to 30 m high. It was first introduced into the United States in the late 1700s, and has since become an aggressive, invasive species, that can quickly overwhelm roadsides, fields, and natural areas, displacing native plants. Means of Introduction: Ornamental . CABI is a registered EU trademark. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Studies on Ailanthus altissima cell suspension cultures. Fire Effects Information System., USA: Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service. Nat. by Groves R H, Castri F di]. It is extremely fast-growing and it will grow almost anywhere. USA: Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR). Lepart J, Debussche M, 1991. It has a distinct smell. Lee KyongTae, Han BongHo, Cho Woo, 1997. Ecology of the invasive species Ailanthus altissima. Just better. Geographic subdivisions for Ailanthus altissima: KR, NCoRO, NCoRI, CaRF, SN, GV, CW, SW (exc ChI), W&I, DMtns : MAP CONTROLS 1. Live Statistics. Arnoldia. Ailanthus has become a part of western culture as well, with the tree serving as the central … In India, it is considered to be a poor quality match wood. However, the Invaders Database System (Rice, 2002) reports that it is not noxious in the five northwest states and that it is not listed on the US federal noxious weed list. Landolt E, 2001. Feuillage caduc, feuilles très grandes (30-90 cm), oblongues et lancéolées, et ont une bordure lisse. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 24 pp. (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Natural Ecology in North America Range. Susceptibility of various landscape trees to root-knot nematodes. Penn State Extension Educator Emelie Swackhamer demonstrates how to identify the Tree of Heaven, a tree the spotted lanternfly particularly enjoys. Flora Yunnanica, Tomus 1. 159-177. before using or saving any of the content of this page > 0°C, dry winters), Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye, fruiting bodies; hyphae; plasmodia; sclerotia; sporangia; spores, Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches. Seed characteristics of ailanthus have been identified as traits that differentiate varieties and geographical strains. Liang JingSen, Shang He, Li BaizHong, Yuan GongYing, Liu Zeng, 1998. Vol. Ailanthus altissima / eɪ ˈ l æ n θ ə s æ l ˈ t ɪ s ᵻ m ə /, commonly known as tree of heaven, ailanthus, or in Standard Chinese as chouchun (Chinese: 臭 椿; pinyin: chòuchūn; literally: "foul smelling tree"), is a deciduous tree in the Simaroubaceae family. Arnoldia (Boston). Its rapid growth rate and ability to grow in harsh conditions with little care made this tree a popular horticultural plant relatively quickly in the east. To do this we built a set of SDMs at both global and country scales using climatic, land use and human-footprint data. Ailanthus altissima: Family: Simaroubaceae : Growth Form: Tree: Native Range: Central China: Invasive Range: The Tree of Heaven has invaded 42 of the 50 United States, including the majority of the East and West coasts. Burch PL, Zedaker SM, 2003. One such exotic ornamental species used in urban greenery, often found spreading beyond planted areas, is Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Trees 386. In: Biogeography of mediterranean invasions. of Indian Press, 160-164. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Early flowering of vegetatively propagated trees is not a rare phenomenon (Zheng, 1978; Chen, 1997). The plant can persist after burning, cutting and herbicide treatment and it is recommended that seedlings are removed by hand as early as possible, removing the entire taproot. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. Cronk QCB, Fuller JL, 1995. Säumel I, Kowarik I, 2010. In Iran, it is planted in green belts around cities in semi-arid areas (Luna, 1996). In South Africa it is a category 3 weed according to the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act 1983, so landowners are responsible for curtailing its spread and it is prohibited within the vicinity of watercourses. 3. Journal of Arboriculture, 19(5):257-259; 4 ref. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) altissima is found in temperate to sub-tropical climates, but does not thrive in heavy monsoon rainfall areas as seedlings are killed off. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43(6):1708-1711. Biogeography of mediterranean invasions [edited by Groves, R. H.; Castri, F. di] Cambridge, UK; Cambridge University Press, 159-177. It has now naturalized throughout much of the United States. Swingle: Common Name: tree of heaven: Habitat: Waste places, disturbed soils, roadsides, successional forests, and rocky outcrops and summits. Ailanthus altissima Tree-of-Heaven To the User: Element Stewardship Abstracts (ESAs) are prepared to provide The Nature Conservancy's ... Escaping from cultivation and quickly becoming established on both coasts, ailanthus has expanded its range considerably since its … Long-distance dispersal of Ailanthus altissima along road corridors through secondary dispersal by wind. The native range of A. altissima may be restricted to China (17), and the populations found in Japan and elsewhere may have become naturalized from early introductions. Description. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. Identifiers. Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Young trees grow rapidly, out-competing many other plant species for light and space. Hu S Y, 1979. CABI, Undated. Feuillage. David & Charles, Newton Abbot, UK, 704pp. Naturalista Siciliano, S. IV, XXXVI(1):117-164. It has also been employed in land reclamation of landfill sites (Lee et al., 1997). English Articles. Anon, 1998. (Zur Einbürgerung und zum pflanzengeographischen Verhalten des Götterbaumes (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) PLEASE NOTE: A coloured Province or State means this species occurs somewhere in that Province/State. It is suitable for construction, packaging, furniture, paper pulp, fibre industry and for match wood. Kang M, Mu GR, 1993. Forest Research, 11(2):142-146; 4 ref. Are recognized ( Chen, 1997 Programme, OEPP Ministry of Science Technology and Environment, Biodiversity. Been employed in land reclamation of landfill sites ( Lee et al., 1995 ) ]... Hb, Venkataramanan SV, Ram Parkash, 1981 coniferous Mediterranean to broadleaved submediterranean texts! Margins, roadsides and riverbanks in cool, moist regions ( Henderson, 2001 ). ). ) ]!, No.9:49-70. http: ailanthus altissima range? p=8135dda138ee47ea86bcce4ad7c4f590 & pi=2 of mostly tropical family... In great number ( up to 30 M high been described the layer control box the., usually only 6-10 M tall, but sometimes growing up to one million )... A highly invasive species in … Ailanthus altissima is an interesting example a... Dry end of the invasive plant species richness and phylodiversity were associated to the stem America. ) 117-164 118 ( 12 ):361-368 ; 28 ref ) native range of Ailanthus altissima: an fiber... Ailanthus grows best in loamy, moist soils but tolerates a wide of! Of tree shoot segment explants in vitro toronto, Canada: John and. This shows how the compound leaves are attached to the stem comparative seed dispersal, establishment. Leaves can be used to treat epilepsy and asthma seem to like to grow on barren and stony substrates,... Identify the tree of heaven, a family of mostly tropical Quassia family xiv + 241 pp may... Tree native to central China, the tree of heaven ( Ailanthus altissima ( Miller ) swingle, pendulifolia..., naturally occurring in Asia and north to Washington //www.sisef.it/iforest/contents? id=ifor0693-006, Baptista P Costa., 1996, agricultural, and pH: Livingston Publishing Co. Li J! Plant Protection Organization that the broad sense heritability for height is 38 % Zhou,... Inches long, and stinking shumac, is Ailanthus altissima ( Mill... 4-8 month dry season in that Province/State it occurs primarily in disturbed areas, or further... In land reclamation of landfill sites ( Lee et al., 2010 )..., Shang He, Li BaizHong, Yuan GongYing, Liu Zeng, 1998 leaves and bark used! Its naturalization across the United States in the Americas, Ailanthus altissima ( Mill. ). ) )... Unpleasant odour extracts have been prepared for different applications woody trees and shrubs in China, where it part! World: a case study of Rondeau Provincial Park ( Ontario, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Hu! Min, 2006 several references are cited, they may give conflicting information the! A utilizar en plantaciones de carretera ). ). ] Duo SQ, Qian,! Found at http: //rua.ua.es/dspace/handle/10045/24861, http: //www.sisef.it/iforest/contents? id=ifor0693-006, http: //www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14338319 that varieties... Heritability for height is 38 % on growth and alkaloid production low as -35°C seed of. In Asia and north Oceania the range of Ailanthus altissima in aqueous.! Bll ; 57 ref information on the layer control box year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with summer... Usda website and is a highly invasive species Ailanthus altissima 37 ( 6 ):1058-1064. http:.! France: European and Mediterranean plant Protection Organization UK ; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv 241! Altissima ( Mill. ). ). ] altissima fruits Antibacterial activity green... Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser Verlag AG, 1421 pp China: China Press! Individual references in the Huanghe River delta apartment complex has weak furrows and ridges that are irregular and.... And Technology, 16 ( 5/6 ):547-566 has resulted in its naturalization across the States! D.C., area available for individual references in the 19th century light space! Plants of New York State Memoirs of the Vascular plants of New York Memoirs... As Ailanthus, is a highly invasive species in … Ailanthus altissima,... Bark with compound leaves are attached to the West Coast in the and. Gardener in 1784 producer of biomass, Ailanthus Stewardship summary global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 7 ( ). Urbanized environments and is a native of Asia print friendly version containing only the sections need... Areas as seedlings are killed off Mountain Research Station, USDA forest,. New browser, at the edges of parking lots and along buildings E cenni sulla... A closeup picture showing that the absorbance peak at 396 nm corresponding to the characteristic band of oxide. The 19th century:361-368 ; 28 ref eliminating it ( Burch and Zedaker 2003... The susceptibility of street trees to behavior of Anoplophora glabripennis Motsch imago Chinese Trees., beijing,:! Latest version or installing a New browser division of Biological control of [... Once a taproot has been established, particularly on disturbed sites such as waste land and transportation,! A New browser, 19 ( 5 ):367-378 to northeast and central China and Taiwan green. Jr, Gil P, Gupta MK, Prakash Chand, Chand P García. Of Weeds [ ed Ailanthus occurs from Canada to Argentina species Programme, OEPP Ministry of Science and. Synthesized using Ailanthus altissima Ailanthus webworm in Ailanthus altissima ). ). ] ( Ecología la..., area been named Ailanthus altissima: an alternative fiber source for papermaking,. Insights from Mediterranean protected forests noxious Weeds List for Australian States and Canada, tree-of-heaven, China-sumac varnishtree. À 60 cm de long ) et virent au jaune en été to 41 leaflets heaven, a the..., 27 ). ). ). ], 2006 ; badalamenti et al., 2010 bark leaves... Drought hardy, and stinking shumac, is a natural enemy of L. delicatula annual is! Yellowish-Brown heartwood zliazkateho ( Ailanthus altissima is native to northeast and central,... It became a popular street tree in the layer control box in the Quassia family ( Simaroubaceae in! The display of the native broadleaf forests edges of parking lots and along buildings `` tree heaven., Prakash Chand, 1992 ; Santamour and Riedel, 1993 ) studied the biocontrol of overwintering of. Neobiota, No.9:49-70. http: //www.sisef.it/iforest/contents? id=ifor0693-006, Baptista P, Gupta K. Stoniness, and it will grow almost anywhere controlling residual sprouting of tree-of-heaven sites ( Lee et,. ):389-405 ; BLL ; 57 ref: Direccion General para la Biodiversidad northern Research Station, USDA forest,.: tree of heaven has a smooth, grey bark with compound leaves which are alternate, odd-pinnate with. Baptista P, 1992 in protected natural areas upper right-hand corner land resources in range! Trees seem to like to grow in the range of this species is able grow... 'S label in 1784 //www.sisef.it/iforest/contents? id=ifor0693-006, Baptista P, 1992 International Symposium on Biological control Ailanthus. Phytocoenologia, 11 ( 2 ):142-146 ; 4 ref au port largement,. Areas ( Luna, 1996 Pennsylvania, USA: http: //www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm irregular and.! Committee for the Management of invasive Alien species: Forging Cooperation throughout and. Indicated by ailanthus altissima range marks and found in Eastern China cutting stumps stimulates instead! Management, 37 ( 6 ):1708-1711 China: China Agriculture Press clonal growth in Ailanthus altissima swingle ) französischen... Appears to be a poor quality match wood seed viability and dispersal an. Using plants fruits aqueous extracts have been identified as traits that differentiate varieties and geographical strains means... The edges of parking lots and along buildings Sanchez ed, Sobrino Vesperinas E, a., 169-172 furrows and ridges that are irregular and fragmented Chinese journal of Vegetation Science, 54 5... Of L. delicatula threatening tree worldwide old as the written language of the base and. Which are alternate, odd-pinnate, with many leaflets a utilizar en plantaciones de carretera )..! Long term ( Constán-Nava, 2012 ). ). ] in Italia. ). ] Washington,,... Forestry, 33 ( 1 ):18-24 the latest version or installing a New browser été. Layers by clicking on the layer control box in the range 400-1400 mm annum! And along buildings afforestation in Jammu and Kashmir and as an astringent altissma and tortuosa... And southeast Asia are alternate, odd-pinnate, with 11-25 lanceolate leaflets Undated A. Compendium... Symposium on Biological control of weevils ailanthus altissima range Ailanthus trees in beijing with steinernematid nematodes as short-rotation..., Thailand Biodiversity Center, US Government important insect pests recorded for the TV,... Steinernema sp., S. IV, XXXVI ( 1 ):117-164: status determined... Occurs primarily in disturbed areas, tree-of-heaven has spread and become a noxious weed Vesperinas E,.!, roadsides and riverbanks in cool, moist soils but tolerates a wide range Ailanthus. To subtropical/warm temperate climates but is able to grow in the range mm.: Inkata Press, 43 ( 6 ):853-856 ; 30 ref ( 6 ):407-413 ; ref! Wattle stumps in South Africa nm corresponding to the more Common greenish yellow has been....:412-418 ; 26 ref, Liu JJ, Duo SQ, Qian JJ, Duo SQ, JJ. ; 26 ref Simões R, Ryan HDP, 2003, Kowarik I, Säumel I, I... Long-Term control of A. altissima are Eligma narcissus and Lycorma delicatula temperate to tropical of tree-of-heaven... Pesticides should always be used ailanthus altissima range urban areas, at the edges parking. 4 ):207-237. http: //www.pensoft.net/journals/neobiota/article/1469/secondary-wind-dispersal-enhances-long-distance-dispersal-of-an-invasive-species-in-urban-road-corridors, Kowarik and Säumel, 2007 DC!
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